We have published an review in WIREs: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology. The title is The synergistic strategies for the immuno-oncotherapy with photothermal nanoagents.
Immuno-oncotherapy has shown great promise for the cure of late-stage and metastatic cancer. Great efforts have tried to improve the overall response rate (ORR) and to reduce the immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Antigen presentation, T cell activation and killing are interlocking and distinct steps to initiate effective anti-tumor immune responses. Aiming to overcome the tumor immune evasion whose mechanisms include limited release of neoantigen, suppressed infiltration of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells, and the expression of immune checkpoints (ICPs), combinational therapeutic strategies have shown great potential by activating the anti-tumor immune responses together with deactivating immunosuppressive conditions simultaneously. In this direction, photothermal therapy (PTT) has attracted attention due to the efficient ablation of tumor cells, of which the released immunogenic tumor debris can activate host immune responses. The combination of immunoadjuvants and/or ICP inhibitors can boost the anti-tumor immune responses, realizing PTT-synergized immuno-oncotherapy. In this regard, numerous multifunctional nanomaterials have been designed with integration of photothermal and immuno-oncotherapeutic agents into one package via well-designed surface modification and functionalization. This review summarizes the recent studies on the synergistic strategies for the immuno-oncotherapy based on photothermal nanoagents and the mechanisms that trigger the systemic anti-tumor immune responses and PTT-synergized immuno-oncotherapy.